Following the EU accessions of Austria, Finland, and Sweden, it was in turn amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), and Nice (2001). Nel Trattato si fissano dei parametri per stabilire se un paese sia in grado di far parte dell’Unione economica e monetaria. The "austerity" they had subsequently to impose as a condition of assistance from Germany and other of their trade-surplus EU partners, raised calls for new arrangements to better manage payment imbalances between member states, and ease the burden of adjustment upon wage-, and benefit-, dependent households. Attraverso l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, la creazione di un'unione economica e monetaria e l'estensione dell'integrazione europea a nuovi settori, la Comunità entra in una dimensione politica. Formally the Treaty on European Union, it announced "a new stage in the process of European integration"[1] chiefly in provisions for a shared European citizenship, for the eventual introduction of a single currency, and (with less precision) for common foreign and security policies. The Treaty noted that it should be "ratified by the High Contracting Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional requirement". With limited leeway granted in exceptional circumstances, the obligations are to maintain: 1. Following the accession of a further twelve states, ten from the former Eastern Bloc – Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia – plus Cyprus and Malta, and an aborted Treaty on a European Constitution, Maastricht was more comprehensively revisited. The EU inherited many of its present responsibilities from, and the membership of the European Communities (EC), which were founded in the 1950s in the spirit of the Schuman Declaration. [31], The Treaty dedicates the EU central banking system to price stability, and gives it "a degree of independence from elected officials" greater even "than that of its putative model, the German Bundesbank". Annexed to the Treaty is a Protocol, and an Agreement, on Social Policy. increased legislative powers for the European Parliament; more majority voting when EU governments adopt legislation. Under the name " Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union ", it remains one of the two most important treaties in what is … 1-112). Fact Sheets on the European Union - 2020", "The European Security and Defence Identity: NATO and the WEU (19 April 1999)", "What happens to our neutrality when the chips are down? Trattato di Maastricht Trattato sull’Unione Europea firmato a Maastricht il 7 febbraio 1992 dagli allora 12 Paesi membri della Comunità Europea (Belgio, Danimarca, Francia, Germania, Gran Bretagna, Grecia, Irlanda, Italia, Lussemburgo, Paesi Bassi, Portogallo, Spagna), entrato in vigore il 1° novembre 1993. On 18 May 1993, Maastricht Treaty was endorsed by a vote of 56.7%.[9]. I parametri di Maastricht o criteri di convergenza sono i requisiti economici e finanziari che gli Stati dell'Unione europea devono soddisfare per l'ingresso nell'Unione economica e monetaria dell'Unione europea (UEM). In time, the tension between the transferred worker as "a mobile unit of production" contributing to the success of the single market, and the reality of the Community migrants as individuals, seeking to exercise "a personal right" to live and work in another state for their own, and their families', welfare, asserted itself. severe tensions for at least the last two years"; and. Guarda cosa ho condiviso: PMLI - 209 miliardi capestro all'Italia. Insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors. Officially known as the Treaty on European Union, the Maastricht Treaty marked the beginning of ‘a new stage in the process of creating an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe’ by giving the previous communities a political dimension. [8] Concessions secured by the end of year in Edinburgh including, critically, the same exemption secured by Britain from the single currency (Denmark would not have to give up the krone), allowed for a second referendum. Operation Self-Deceit: New Documents Shine Light on Euro Birth Defects, "The IMF & the European Economic and Monetary Union - Factsheet", "Madrid European Council (12/95): Conclusions", "European Labour in a Single Market: '1992' and the Implications of Maastricht", "Wolfgang Schäuble: "Europe will only work if the rules are the same for smaller and bigger member states, "The Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties. The four "convergence criteria", as detailed in attached protocols,[28][29] impose control over inflation, public debt and the public deficit, exchange rate stability and domestic interest rates. This has been described as a "reversed Keynesianism": macro-economic policy not to secure a full-employment level of demand, but, through the restrictive control of monetary growth and public expenditure, to maintain price and financial market stability; micro economic policy, not to engineer income and price controls in support of fiscal expansion, but to encourage job creation by reducing barriers to lower labour costs. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies Use, Other sites managed by the Publications Office, travel and live freely anywhere in the EU, Portal of the Publications Office of the EU. That phase of benign despotism is over. – Der Kanzler öffnet die Akten über die deutsche Einheit. The treaties (primary legislation) are the basis or ground rules for all EU action. Via Trattato di Maastricht 10 15067 Novi Ligure - AL - Italy. Il Trattato di Maastricht introdusse anche il concetto di cittadinanza europea, di cui godono tutti coloro che possiedono la cittadinanza di uno Stato membro. Trattato che istituisce la Comunità europea (versione consolidata Nizza) - Parte terza: Politiche della Comunità - Titolo XIX: Ambiente - Articolo 174 - Articolo 130 R - Trattato CE (versione consolidata Maastricht) - Gazzetta ufficiale n. C 325 del 24/12/2002 pag. The following timeline outlines the legal inception of the European Union (EU)—the principal framework for this unification. The Maastricht Treaty is of course the main example of a legally-binding agreement among privileged countries. EU legislation is divided into primary and secondary. Progetto Curricolare di Cittadinanza e Costituzione a.s. 2016-2017, classe 4A Liceo Scientifico Capoterra - I.I.S. La cittadinanza europea assegna il diritto di Die Dokumente zeigen: Frankreich hat das schnelle Ende der Mark erzwungen. In Britain the Maastricht rebellion drew on the experience of Black Wednesday. These criteria in turn dictated the mandate of the European System of Central Banks comprising the national central banks, but to include the prospective currency-issuing European Central Bank. ", "Still rooted in Maastricht: EU external relations as a 'third-generation hybrid, The Treaty on European Union, signed at Maastricht on 7 February 1992, The History of the European Union – The Treaty of Maastricht, Proposed 1962 treaty establishing a "European Union", Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Netherlands Antilles Association Convention, Treaty establishing the European Political Community, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Treaty Establishing the European Stability Mechanism, Post-Brexit United Kingdom relations with the European Union, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maastricht_Treaty&oldid=995151759, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 14:46. Unresolved in the Treaty is the question of their access to social rights. As an implicit presumption subsidiarity may have been considered a check upon the supranational development of the EEC. The 2007 Lisbon amends and incorporates the Maastricht Treaty as the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Tasso d'inflazione non superiore dell'1,5% rispetto a quello dei tre Paesi più virtuosi. [38] The Treaty, however, proposed no significant departures in these areas. It introduced procedures that made the European Parliament "co-legislator with the Council of Ministers" and have since have since been developed and extended to nearly all areas where the Council decides by qualified majority voting. The new provisions called on governments to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]]",[39] but otherwise continued cooperation on the basis of intergovernmental liaison outside of the EC and its institutions. Titles III and IV amend the treaties establishing the ECSC and Euratom to complete their absorption into the structure of European Community. Il Trattato di Maastricht è stato firmato il 7 febbraio 1992, avviando il percorso verso l’unione politica e monetaria dei membri. It also grants the Parliament the power to confirm (and therefore to veto) Council nominations for the European Commission, the Community's secretariat.. L'Unione era fondata sulle Comunità europee e sostenuta da politiche e forme di cooperazione previste dal trattato sull'Unione europea. Ratificato dagli allora dodici paesi delle Comunità Europee, specifica i criteri politici ed economici per poter aderire all'Unione. [15] The ERM was the centrepiece of the European Monetary System (EMS), set up on voluntary basis in 1978 to reduce the "barrier" that exchange-rate volatility presented for intra-Community commerce (and for the management of payments under the Common Agricultural Policy). With a view to ensuring that the dynamic of the European Single Market respect certain minimum social and employment protections, these allow the Council of Ministers to approve relevant proposals from the European Commission on the basis of a qualified majority rather than unanimous consent. It amends the EEC's Treaty of Rome constitution, renaming it the European Community to reflect the Union's broader ambition. "[33], Seeming to further preclude any possibility of the single-currency banking system being used to regulate European financial markets in support of expansionary – potentially inflationary – policies, the Treaty expressly prohibits the ECB or any Member State central extending "overdraft facilities or any other type of credit facility" to "Community institutions or bodies, central governments, regional, local or other public authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of Member States", or the purchase from them debt instruments. "[10], In the United Kingdom parliament ratification did not command a clear majority. In Ireland, the Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution, allowing the state to ratify the Treaty, was approved in a referendum held on 18 June 1992 with the support of 69.1% of votes cast. L’accordo comprende 252 articoli nuovi, 17 protocolli e 31 dichiarazioni. As envisaged by the Treaty,[30] the ECB replaced its shadow European Monetary Institute on 1 June 1998, and began exercising its full powers with the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999. The West European Union, an until recently moribund club within NATO, is described as "an integral part of the development of the Union", and asked it to help "elaborate and implement decisions and actions of the Union which have defence implications. Sceptics note that the Treaty offers no legally actionable definition of subsidiarity. Introduction to the Jacques Delors Colloquium 1991: "Subsidiarity: the challenge of change" organised by the European Institute of Public Administration at Maastricht, 21 and 22 March 1991, p. 32. In both cases, Member States are to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]",[5] but otherwise cooperate independently of Community institutions. Il Trattato di Maastricht ha creato le premesse per la moneta unica europea, l’euro. Bacaredda-Atzeni di Cagliari The Treaty rules that "every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union". In a new EU country of residence Member-State nationals have the right to vote, and to stand, in both local and European elections. Treaty on European Union (OJ C 191, 29.7.1992, pp. The United Kingdom was not a party of the Agreement on Social Policy and secured an "opt out" from the protocol. The treaty was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany, and it came into force on 1 January 1958. 21. Expression index: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200, More. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website. Inflation at a rate no more than 1.5 percentage points higher than the average of the three best performing (lowest inflation) Member States; 2. a "budgetary position" that avoids "excessive" government deficits defined in ratios to gross domestic product (GDP) of greater than 3% for annual deficits and 60% for gross government debt; 3. the exchange rate of the national currency within "the normal fluctuation margins by the exchange-rate mechanism of the European Monetary System without Il trattato ha inoltre istituito la Banca centrale europea (BCE) e il Sistema europeo di banche centrali, precisandone le finalità. Title V and VI extend existing intergovernmental consultations on foreign-policy, security and defence matters, and on "cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs." Title II, Provisions Amending the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community, reformulates the EEC as the central "pillar" of the Union. In establishing the European Union the Maastricht Treaty amended the treaties that had established the European Communities in the 1950s. Il trattato sull'Unione europea è stato firmato a Maastricht alla presenza del Presidente del Parlamento europeo, on. Save for Later. December 12 1991: Maastricht Treaty hailed as great leap forward despite Major concessions By David Gow in Bonn, Paul Webster in Paris and John Palmer in … Although these were widely seen to presage a "federal Europe", the focus of constitutional debate shifted to the later 2007 Treaty of Lisbon. Britain had signed up to the ERM in 1990 as a token of the government's commitment to control inflation (then running at three times the rate of Germany). Having "resolved to continue the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe", the Treaty proposes "further steps to be taken in order to advance European integration"[2] under seven titles. The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the twelve Member States of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). Prime Minister John Major was able to face down his "Maastricht Rebels" only by tying ratification to the survival of the government in a vote of confidence.[11]. Association Member: ILAB; Quantity available: 1. Il trattato di Maastricht rappresenta una tappa determinante della costruzione europea. L'Unione disponeva di un quadro istituzionale unico, composto dal Consiglio, dal Pa… Ha segnato il momento culminante di vari decenni di dibattito sul rafforzamento della cooperazione economica in Europa. [36], Taking issue in defence of the Maastricht criteria, German finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble argued that "the old way to stimulate growth will not work." Il Trattato di Maastricht è naturalmente l'esempio più illustre di accordo giuridicamente vincolante fra paesi ricchi. [40] Yet it is clear that nothing is to be construed as systematically constraining the foreign or defence policies of the individual Member States. Per aderire al Trattato di Maastricht nei diversi paesi è stato indetto un referendum 20. It creates the European Union. [16] From the beginning of 1990, high German interest rates, set by the Bundesbank to counteract inflationary impact of the expenditure on German reunification, caused significant stress across the whole of the ERM. In protest against the social-policy opt out, Labour opposed, while "anti-federalists" split the governing Conservatives. From Libreria Oreste Gozzini snc (Firenze, FI, Italy) AbeBooks Seller Since 01 October 2009 Seller Rating. There is a real "moral hazard" in allowing Member States to accumulate higher debts within the Eurozone – higher debts which, ultimately, have no relationship to higher growth. [35], These constraints were to become the focus of political scrutiny and public protest in the new-century European debt crisis. Political debate continued as to who should have access to public services and welfare systems funded by taxation.[14]. Officially known as the Treaty on European Union, the Maastricht Treaty marked the beginning of ‘a new stage in the process of creating an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe’ by giving the previous communities a political dimension. Word index: 1-300, 301-600, 601-900, More. Il Trattato di Maastricht, il Trattato C.E. This publication reproduces the text of the Treaty on European Union, as signed in Maastricht on 7 February 1992. [19][20], Since being forced by speculation against the franc to abandon the centrepiece of his Socialist programme in 1983, a job creating reflation,[21] Mitterrand had been committed to drawing Germany into a currency partnership. The text has been produced for documentary purposes and does not involve the responsibility of the institutions. Firmato a M. (Paesi Bassi), il 7 febbr. 4. nominal long-term interest rates no more than 2 percentage points higher than in the three Member States with the lowest inflation. Title VII, Final Provisions, covers a number of anomalous issues. Among its most prominent innovations, the treaty: provides the legal basis for 6 new EU common policies; safeguard the EU’s common values, fundamental interests and independence; strengthen the security of the EU and its member countries; preserve peace and international security in line with, develop and consolidate democracy and the. However, the price of German cooperation was widely perceived as German dictation of the terms. Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis credited the Maastricht criteria with framing of a union of deflation and unemployment. It confirms among its objectives are "the introduction of a citizenship of the Union" common to the nationals of the Member States; "economic and monetary union, ultimately including a single currency"; and "a common foreign and security policy including the eventual framing of a common defence".[3]. The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the 19 European Union countries which have adopted the euro. Maastricht is an ambitious treaty. On 16 September 1992 the British government had been forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), after a failed and costly attempt to keep the pound above its mandated exchange rate limit. [6] In the cases of Denmark, France and Ireland this required referenda. This groups the traditional activities, working and decision-making procedures of the 3 original EU organisations: Common foreign and security policy (2nd pillar), Cooperation on justice and home affairs (3rd pillar). La firma arriva al termine dei negoziati. petition the European Parliament and address any complaints of EU administrative malpractice to the. Other amendments create the office of European Ombudsman, expand the Structural Fund assistance to the poorer EU regions; and broaden Community competencies in education, culture, public health, consumer protection, trans-European networks, industry and the environment. In secondo luogo il trattato stabiliva l'avvio di una politica estera e per la sicurezza comuni. For every endeavour it poses the question of whether national or Community policy is the most effective means, and elevates simple utility above any deference to national or local feeling. [22], Having "resolved to achieve the strengthening and the convergence and to establish an economic and monetary union including,... a single and stable currency",[23] the Treaty ruled that "Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern", and that the obligations assumed should be a matter for "mutual surveillance. It was to do the same with respect to the obligation to enter the final, single-currency, stage of monetary union (the UK would not have to give up Pound sterling). [13] This common and parallel citizenship accords the Member State migrants not only the civil right to take up residence and employment, but also, and for the first time, political rights. Since the end of World War II, sovereign European countries have entered into treaties and thereby co-operated and harmonised policies (or pooled sovereignty) in an increasing number of areas, in the so-called European integration project or the construction of Europe (French: la construction européenne). [32] The commitment to monetary union and the convergence criteria denied member states the resort to currency deflation to ease balance-of-payments constraints on domestic spending, and left labour market "flexibility" as the only means of coping with asymmetric economic shocks. Works related to Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union at Wikisource, This article is about one of two founding treaties of the European Union. From the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1957, integrationists argued the free movement of workers was the logical corollary of the free movement of capital, goods and services and integral to the establishment of a common (and later single) European market.

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